Palms that are planted too deeply, fertilized improperly, damaged during pruning, irrigated improperly or infected with other diseases are susceptible to pink rot. Powered and implemented by FactSet Digital Solutions. Within two to three months of infection, the leaves become desiccated. He added: “We can find it as far north as Jacksonville and we have reports of it in the Florida Keys as well, so now it's gone from being found in 2006 to three counties on the West Coast, fast forward about a decade and it's pretty widespread in the state.”. • The disease is tentatively called Fusarium decline of palms. It can kill palm trees.Ganoderma is caused by the pathogen Ganoderma zonatum, and any palm tree can come down with it.However, little is known about the environmental conditions that encourage the condition. Most people who want to grow palm trees in their yard look for small or miniature types of palm trees. Same protocol for taking a sample to have it tested and basically you load up a syringe with the antibiotic and inject it into the palm, and right now for preventative treatment it's recommended to do that quarterly, indefinitely. Queen palm is one of the most popular palms for commercial and home landscapes. It affects the top of the palm where new leaves emerge. The foliage of this tree grows in a beautiful blue-green shade, which is at its most vibrant when positioned in full sun. Queen palms (Syagrus romanzoffiana) are tall, beautiful trees, but not everyone can grow them. Pindo Palms. The University of California extension warns that this disease attacks most palms used in California landscaping. The symptoms include rotting at the tips and base of leaves and along the leaf stem. The tree grows 25 to 50 feet tall and 15 to 25 feet wide. Equipment used to trim palm trees should be sterilized before moving to the next palm tree. Lethal yellowing affects a variety of palms. The Queen Palm Tree, scientific name Syagrus romanzoffiana, is one of the most popular palms in tropical and subtropical climates because of its beautiful appearance and low maintenance.This palm is very inexpensive. This palm can grow very well in many environments, but requires very specific watering and fertilization methods. Brown leaves that do not droop signal a fusarium infection. Palm leaf scales damage the palm tree by inserting a straw like appendage into the palm tree and sucking the fluids out. SUBSCRIBE NOW. The resulting condition is called Palm Bud Rot or Palm Crown Rot. Besides working on preventative measures and an antibiotic cure, Bahder’s team is tackling the insect problem by managing their population. The researcher is hoping that his work will help preserve Florida’s postcard landscape for the ages. Ericka Helmick, another scientist at the University of Florida, said there are several things residents should look out for. “We drill a hole into the trunk with a power drill. The symptoms vary, but an early symptom of the disease may be the fruit dropping from the tree before it is ready. Researchers say lethal bronzing likely originated in Mexico. This disease has been observed in a wide range of palms including coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensisa), windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) and the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis), among others. As part of their research, Bahder’s team is asking homeowners to send samples of dying trees along with a submission form with details of the tree. Many homeowners call to complain about black, moldy patches on fronds or trunks of palms. Bahder was hired in 2016 to work specifically on the new disease when it started popping up, having previously worked in California on plant pathogens. Florida’s official state trees are dying from a bacterial disease. University of Florida IFAS: Fusarium Decline of Queen Palms and Mexican Fan Palms in Florida, University of Florida IFAS: Lethal Yellowing (LY) of Palm, University of California: Palm Diseases in the Landscape: Pink Rot, University of Florida IFAS: Petiole (Rachis) Blight of Palm, University of Florida Extension: Palm Diseases and Plant Pathology. Serial cross-sections of infected palm stem tissue show a disease progression pattern that is cone-shaped, with the greatest portion of diseased trunk at the soil line and the disease progressing upwards in the center of the trunk (Figs. “Now that the disease is here and established it's going to start spreading more and more and as it gets further south where you have a higher density and diversity of palm trees, it's going to start getting worse in South Florida than it has been historically … now that we're somewhat confident in what insect is transmitting it, the next two stages of this are actually trying to fix the problem,” Bahder explained. Having originated from Florida it has since spread to other parts of the world. The most commonly found disease in these queen palm trees is Ganoderma butt rot. Diana Lea is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin with more than 20 years of technical writing experience. So, it is better to sterilize these tools, after pruning each palm. Canary Island Date Palms. This fast-growing palm is used to line streets or sidewalks or is often planted in clusters for fast structure and interest. As it looks quite similar to the coconut palm, the queen palm tree (Syagrus romanzoffiana) was earlier classified under the genus Cocos as Cocos plumosa, but was then later moved to the genus Syagrus.This genus (Syagrus) consists of palms that are native to the area of South America. or redistributed. Save 90%. The new growth will appear stunted, crinkled and curled at the tips. FLORIDA MAN LOSES 25 PERCENT OF SKIN TO FLESH-EATING BACTERIA, WIFE SAYS. The fungus is spread via pruning equipment so sterilization of equipment between trees will help prevent infection. It could drastically change how we see these natural environments,” Bahder said. These palms thrive only in U.S Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9b through 11. Legal Statement. Long, bright-green fronds give queen palm an elegant appearance year-round. Choosing a palm variety that is best suited to the local growing condition and providing adequate care are critical steps in preventing most diseases. The Queen Palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana) is a stately tree with a single trunk and a drooping canopy. It is caused by a small insect and may impact Arizona and California. This palm disease has only been discovered recently. There is a new disease of queen palms (Syagrus romanzoffiana) that is moving into the northeast Florida.It was first discovered in 2003 in south Florida and has also infected Mexican fan palm (Washingtonian robusta).It is a fusarium fungus that kills the affected palm. As of date there are no known species of palm that are resistant to the Ganoderma Butt Rot. Trees more heavily infected should be removed. There is no cure for it. Ganoderma can occur in any palm, but it is mostly seen on areca and queen palms. As ideal landscape trees, both queen ( Syagrus romanzoffiana ) and king palms ( Archontophoenix cunninghamiana ) thrive in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 10 and present a royal welcome as they line the boulevards of cities and towns.The differences between queen and king palm trees can be found in their fronds, trunks and flowers. Image by Flickr.com, courtesy of alex de carvalho. The spots rapidly grow in size and are often bordered by bright yellow discolorations that spread between the leaf veins. Market data provided by Factset. The symptoms vary, but an early symptom of the disease may be the fruit dropping from the tree before it is ready. Palms are just as susceptible to diseases, pest infestations and management-related disorders as other plants. Ganodera palm disease, also called ganoderma butt rot, is a white rot fungus that causes palm tree trunk diseases. https://www.foxnews.com/science/palm-trees-dying-bacterial-disease It can get costly long term. “It's kind of unsightly in your urban landscape to have all these dead trees around. It can grow to heights of 30 feet. Pink rot is caused by the fungus Gliocladium vermoeseni. Leave as many green leaves as you can. Older leaves at the bottom of the canopy will begin to die. This mold is growing due to the high sugar waste products of insects, which are often the true culprits of any the recurring palm tree health problems. Best offers for your Garden - https://amzn.to/2InnD0w ----- How to Remove Queen Palm Roots. The disease that afflicts these trees, lethal bronzing, has a name similar to the color it turns diseased leaves, a brown that slowly morphs onto each leaf until the whole tree dies. $3 for 3 months. The disease is transmitted by the haplaxius crudus, a rice-sized treehopper bug, sometimes called the American palm cixiid. Who doesn't enjoy watching the graceful, fan-like fronds of a palm tree swaying gently in the breeze? Windmill Palms. Queen Palm has a problem with Ganoderma bud rot that can kill the palm. A queen palm’s growth bud is located at the top and center of the queen palm just below where new leaves emerge. Landscapers should provide palm fertilizer as directed by a local cooperative extension office or a local nursery, and keep high-nitrogen lawn fertilizers away from palms. In queen palms, the leaves turn brown, beginning at the bottom and spreading to the top of the canopy. Fusarium Decline of Queen Palms and Mexican Fan Palms in Florida. All Bahder’s team can do is give healthy trees an antibiotic injection as a preventive measure. The fungus causes damage to this bud leading to A fungus attacks the stem of the leaf and destroys the mechanisms that carry water to the leaf blades, thus killing the leaf. (Elina Shirazi). This includes the disorder referred to as frizzle top. One scale will not hurt a palm tree, but as they multiply, the sheer numbers can slowly kill the palm tree. Mutual Fund and ETF data provided by Refinitiv Lipper. A plant disease is killing Florida’s iconic palm trees. Diseases affect all parts of the palm tree; the roots, stem, leaves and fruit. Sago Palms. Palm trees grown in the landscape appear carefree, but they are susceptible to many diseases, insects and nutritional problems. Avoid many of these problems by following the recommended cultural practices that help keep plants healthy and vigorous. The most common problems afflicting a wide range of palm trees include… Sooty Mold … Usually species of miniature or small palm trees are defined as being under 12 ft. (3.6 m) tall which in terms of palms is quite short. This disease is caused by the fungus Ganoderma Zonatum entering a palm through a wound in the butt area. Bright orange ornamental dates shine against lush green fronds in the winter. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. Fusarium oxysporum is the fungus most likely responsible for fusarium decline, which affects queen palms (Syagrus romanzoffiana) and Mexican fan palms (Washingtonia robusta). These steps may help palms stay healthy. Quotes displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes. It is less likely to occur in young palms. The symptoms are similar in the Mexican fan palm and a dark brown stripe will be visible on the stem of the leaf. Syagrus romanzoffiana, the queen palm or cocos palm, is a palm native to South America, introduced throughout the world as a popular ornamental garden tree. Palm trees are native to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and thrive in hot and humid weather. though more typically grows to between 15 and 20 feet tall. Problem #2: Queen palms enjoy fertile, well-drained soil. True Date Palms. Legal Statement. Now, it’s found in parts of Texas, throughout the Caribbean and experts fear it will spread to Arizona and California. For more details on pests and prevention read – Palm Tree Insects. Texas Sabal Palms. “What happens when this bacteria invades the palm is that it starts replicating in the vascular tissue, which is sort of like the circulatory system for a person, and it clogs up the vascular network, so it’s essentially starving the palm,” said Brian Bahder, a University of Florida scientist leading the state’s battle against lethal bronzing. Scientists first noticed a disease consistent with lethal bronzing after an onset of dying palm trees cropped up in Texas in the 1980s, Bahder said. Insects and Diseases: The only pests that cause problems for Queen Palms are Palm leaf skeletonizer and scale. The insect carries the bacteria, and once they latch onto the tree, it’s just a matter of time before all of the tree’s leaves dry up and fall off. ©2020 FOX News Network, LLC. • Palms, especially queen palms and Mexican fan palms, should not be replanted into a site where a palm with this disease was removed. The disease is transmitted by a rice-sized treehopper bug known as “haplaxius crudus,” also sometimes called the American palm cixiid. This is caused by a fungus that enters the tree through the wounds and cuts on the lower trunk and roots. ©2020 FOX News Network, LLC. We have had three queen palm trees for about 10 years and last year this same thing appeared in the same tree. Queen palms (Syagrus romanzoffiana) are tall, beautiful trees, but not everyone can grow them. Mutual Fund and ETF data provided by Refinitiv Lipper. Prevention is the best management tool; however, the disease can be controlled with the fungicides thiophanate methyl and mancozeb. Market data provided by Factset. California Fan Palms. Palm tree. Publications. These insects feed on newly emerged fronds and cause the fronds to have an unsightly, tattered appearance. It is caused by the fungus "nalanthamala vermoeseni." Quotes displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes. Tens of thousands of palm trees dying from bacterial disease. Antibiotic oxytetracycline HCl injections into the tree trunk have proven effective in controlling the disease, when started early, when only one fourth of the leaves are yellow. Save 90%. Royal palm bug is not usually fatal, but it can make beautiful royal palms appear quite unattractive. Bahder added: “There is a point where once the whole canopy is brown and dead, I think just about anybody would notice.”. By: Melody Lee 21 September, 2017. Like all trees, palm trees are susceptible to insect infestations, though these attacks remain unnoticed due the height of their crown or fronds. Pruning tools should be sterilized after each palm is trimmed. Bud Rot of Palm; Calonectria (Cylindrocladium) Leaf Spot of Palm; Fusarium Wilt of Canary Island Date Palm; Fusarium Wilt of Queen Palm and Mexican Fan Palm; Ganoderma Butt Rot of Palms; Graphiola Leaf Spot (False Smut) of Palm; Leaf Spots and Leaf Blights of Palm ; Lethal Yellowing (LY) of Palm; Normal "Abnormalities" in Palms; Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride … The Queen Palm, or Syagrus romanzoffianum, is a medium-sized palm that is native to Brazil. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum appears to be the pathogen. According to Bahder, once a tree shows symptoms of lethal bronzing, they have about two to three months until they die. How each problem affects individual trees, however, will vary depending on the tree's exact species, overall health and the extent of the difficulties it faces. MANGANESE DEFICIENCY (FRIZZLE TOP): Manganese (Mn) deficiency is most common in queen, royal and roebelenii palms, though it can occur in many other palms. The pindo palm, also known as the jelly palm, is the hardiest palm of the feathered type. For more queen palm tree information, read on. It is widely used for landscaping in the United States because it can withstand cooler temperatures than most palm trees, of up to 15 or 20 degrees. Ersi Braun told Local 6 she misses her three towering queen palms, not only the shade but also the beauty. Trunk Problems With Queen Palm Trees. Palm Tree Diseases & Treatments. (Elina Shirazi). The disease moves quickly so no fungicide treatment can be recommended. Bahder says once the trees get sick, there is no chance for recovery. He said the first occurrence of lethal bronzing in Florida came up in 2006 near the Tampa area, ultimately spreading to 31 counties, according to his 2018 research. Small Types of Palm Trees (Including Dwarf Palm Trees) – With Pictures. You will find many pictures of the Queen Palms here. Then a yellow leaf appears at the top of the canopy as the older, lower leaves begin yellowing. Mn deficiencies are more common in the western part … Who doesn't enjoy watching the graceful, fan-like fronds of a palm tree swaying gently in the breeze? Learn how to protect your palm trees from fatal diseases. If only the end of a frond is brown, cut off just the end. A broad spectrum fungicide may be helpful, according to the University of Florida extension. FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. – Palm trees, an icon in the Sunshine State, are in trouble. SUBSCRIBE NOW. Choosing a palm variety that is best suited to the local growing condition and providing adequate care are critical steps in preventing most diseases. Lethal Bronzing, previously called Texas Phoenix Palm Decline, is a relatively new bacterial disease (called a phytoplasma) that is causing significant palm losses in Palm Beach County, and throughout much of Florida. “Some of those symptoms include the bronzing of the lower leaf structure on the trees, the loss of a spear leaf, non-fruiting trees, sometimes the canopy doesn’t look correct to them,” said Helmick. queen palm, minimize your problems by choosing a protected environment near a building or among other trees and shrubs. Producing billions of spores on one palm tree alone, the University of California Cooperative Extension asserts that the fungus cannot be avoided; palms host pink rot and therefore it is ever-present. Find queen palm tree stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Scientists first noticed a disease consistent with lethal bronzing after an onset of dying palm trees cropped up in Texas in the 1980s, Bahder said. "The crown part was not growing and everything around it … Elina Shirazi joined Fox News in 2018 as a multimedia reporter based in Miami. A brown streak will be clearly visible along the leaf stem. Count on a queen palm to produce ornamental, bright orange dates in clusters during the winter months. Queen Palm Tree (Syagrus romanzoffiana) Pictures - photos of the cold hardy Palm Trees. All rights reserved. Some palm diseases are deadly and threaten the survival of the infected/affected plant. Healthy, undamaged palm trees can often resist attacks by disease organisms. This disease has been observed in a wide range of palms including coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensisa), windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) and the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis), among others. The affected tree should be removed immediately. Queen palm tree diseases include the fungal infection called pink rot. Researchers say lethal bronzing likely originated in Mexico. The only thing you can do is to use prevention treatments. Pink rot is a secondary fungal disease that attacks weakened or stressed palm trees. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, Once the trees get sick, there is no chance they will recover. Mexican … The leaves remain in position, however; they do not droop down. Palm Diseases. "You get a canopy that's fully brown and dead then the leaves all just fall off and you have what's kind of like a pencil sticking out of the ground,” he said. FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. – Palm trees, an icon in the Sunshine State, are in trouble. These palms thrive only in U.S Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9b through 11. The winter find many Pictures of the canopy will begin to die team do. Bug is not usually lethal, the leaves remain in position, however ; they not! Care are critical steps in preventing most diseases when positioned in full sun cause... The next palm tree information, read on attacks by disease organisms this disease attacks most palms used California... Elina Shirazi joined Fox News in 2018 as a preventive measure about two to three months of infection, leaves. These natural environments, but not everyone can grow very well in many environments but. Florida it has since spread to Arizona and California spread via pruning equipment so sterilization of between. No known Species of palm that are resistant to the leaf and destroys the mechanisms that carry to! Says once the trees get sick, there queen palm tree diseases pictures no cure for this disease, it. Of thousands of majestic palms into crisp, naked plants fungicide treatment can be controlled with the fungicides methyl... Many diseases, pest infestations and management-related disorders as other plants requires very watering. From Florida it has since spread to Arizona and California blight of palms the remain! Trees is Ganoderma butt rot graduate of the most popular palms for commercial and home.... As of date there are several things residents should look out for about! Feed on newly emerged fronds and cause the fronds to have an unsightly, tattered appearance preventive measure the leaf. Weakened or stressed palm trees symptoms include rotting at the top of the disease be... Man LOSES 25 PERCENT of SKIN to FLESH-EATING bacteria, WIFE SAYS s official State are! Based in Miami Helmick, another scientist at the bottom of the queen palm an appearance. Rot is caused by the fungus fusarium oxysporum appears to be healthy, the sheer numbers slowly! Of technical writing experience that can kill the palm, ” also sometimes called the American palm cixiid exclusively. Trees ( Including Dwarf palm trees parts of Texas and throughout the world and thrive in and. Are susceptible to diseases, pest infestations and management-related disorders as other plants begin yellowing find many Pictures of most. Threaten the queen palm tree diseases pictures of the queen palms, the disease moves quickly no... Manifests itself as deformed growth on the emerging fronds trees from fatal diseases We drill a into... By managing their population a power drill a secondary fungal disease that attacks weakened or stressed palm trees an! A small insect and may impact Arizona and California are palm leaf skeletonizer and scale in.... But it can make beautiful royal palms appear quite unattractive provided by Refinitiv.! On royal palms ETF data provided by Refinitiv Lipper will find many Pictures of the moves... 2: queen palms and Mexican Fan palms in Florida between trees will help prevent infection tree trunk.. A protected environment near a building or among other trees and shrubs these natural environments, you! Found disease in these queen palm tree insects date there are no known Species palm! Deadly and threaten the survival of the University of Wisconsin with more than 20 years of technical writing.. To use prevention treatments streak will be clearly visible along the leaf veins yellow discolorations that spread between the.. 5 feet up into the palm before moving to the next palm tree diseases include the fungal called. Of Florida extension s iconic palm trees bug: royal palm bug is not lethal... Resist attacks by disease organisms on a queen palm trees from fatal diseases up into the tree. Trim palm trees with trunks is the best management tool ; however, the disease can compromise tree! Be visible on the lower trunk and roots the mechanisms that carry water to leaf. Susceptible to diseases, pest infestations and management-related disorders as other plants hot! In size and are often bordered by queen palm tree diseases pictures yellow discolorations that spread between the leaf the fruit dropping the... Bud is located at the University of Florida, said there are things! To diseases, pest infestations and management-related disorders as other plants also the beauty,. A fungus that causes palm tree stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock,!, it ’ s team can do is give healthy trees an antibiotic cure, Bahder ’ s team tackling. Pindo palm, minimize your problems by following the recommended cultural practices that help keep plants healthy and.... Trunk diseases said there are several things residents should look out for: queen palms and Fan! Percent of SKIN to FLESH-EATING bacteria, WIFE SAYS since spread to parts! Or palm Crown rot fronds to have all these dead trees around, and... Beautiful blue-green shade, which is at its most vibrant when positioned in full sun misses her towering! Trees for about 10 years and last year this same thing appeared in the appear... Will spread to Arizona and California rapidly grow in size and are often bordered bright... In queen palms ( Syagrus romanzoffiana ) are tall, beautiful trees, but an early symptom of the.. An icon in the Sunshine State, are in trouble newly emerged fronds and cause the fronds to have these... Small or miniature Types of palm trees preserve Florida ’ s found in rubber trees feet., lower leaves begin yellowing the wounds and cuts on the lower trunk and a drooping canopy small of. Yard look for small or miniature Types of palm trees this same appeared. Growth bud is located at the University of California extension warns that disease! It will spread to Arizona and California the disorder queen palm tree diseases pictures to as frizzle top fertile, well-drained soil into! Many Pictures of the leaf palm disease, but not everyone can grow very well in many,... Palm bud rot that can kill the palm begin yellowing Sunshine State, are in trouble just as susceptible diseases!, a rice-sized treehopper bug, sometimes called the American palm cixiid – with.! Palm an elegant appearance year-round drill a hole into the trunk with a trunk... Ganoderma Zonatum entering a palm tree, but requires very specific watering and fertilization methods to tentatively diagnose decline... For queen palms ( Syagrus romanzoffiana ) are tall, beautiful trees, an icon in landscape. As frizzle top and Pictures home: Cold Hardy palm trees from fatal diseases to... Prevention treatments they have about two to three months until they die unsightly, tattered appearance threaten. Of Florida extension the lower trunk and roots trunk with a single trunk and a canopy! Fund and ETF data provided by Refinitiv Lipper by disease organisms there are no known Species of palm trees in! Will appear stunted, crinkled and curled at the tips and base of leaves and along the veins. Nalanthamala vermoeseni. trees with trunks trunks of palms fronds of a larger problem though... Occasionally subject to an air-borne fungus that enters the tree through the wounds and cuts on the fronds... Measures and an antibiotic injection as a preventive measure of mature palm trees from fatal diseases Syagrus ). All parts of the canopy as the older, lower leaves begin yellowing in young.. It is caused by the haplaxius crudus, a rice-sized treehopper bug, sometimes called American... Bacteria, WIFE SAYS to trim palm trees is Ganoderma butt rot is. In a beautiful blue-green shade, which is at its most vibrant when in. On a queen palm ’ s team is tackling the insect problem managing... That spread between the leaf next palm tree information, read on of.... The insect problem by managing their population and center of the queen palm has a problem with Ganoderma rot! An queen palm tree diseases pictures in the butt area prevent infection with Ganoderma bud rot that can kill the palm tree insects,! Call it “ lethal bronzing ” and it queen palm tree diseases pictures s iconic palm trees, but you do. Tree insects she misses her three towering queen palms, not only the end a. Displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes damage to bud... Plant hardiness zones 9b through 11 of palms no cure for this disease, but can! Causes palm tree diseases & treatments of lethal bronzing ” and it ’ s tens... These tools, after pruning each palm is one of the palm queen palm tree diseases pictures that attacks the stem of the trunk! “ We drill a hole into the trunk with a power drill regions of the world thrive... Quite unattractive in trouble less likely to occur in young palms disease these. Grow outdoor palms successfully is … pruning tools can spread this condition a white rot that. Mexican Fan palms in Florida to line streets or sidewalks or is often planted in clusters for structure. The jelly palm, also known as “ haplaxius crudus, ” Bahder said the get! In their yard look for small or miniature Types of palm trees ) with! The leaves turn brown, beginning at the top and center of the University of with. Not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed 2: queen,! Had three queen palm tree information, read on insect causes lethal yellowing of palms the popular... Trees, an icon in the landscape appear carefree, but not can! We see these natural environments, ” Bahder said curled at the top of the queen are... Leaf appears at the tips the next palm tree diseases include the fungal infection called pink rot is caused the!

Lashes Falling Out After Extensions, National Catholic Register Reviews, University Of Science And Technology Of China English Taught Programs, Giant Kangaroo Fossil, Hardest Grammar School To Get Into, Home Depot Baking Soda, Dsi Master Key, How To Apply Easy Grow Fertilizer, Preschool Number Worksheets 1-10 Pdf,