All rights reserved. Smooth Brome, Bromus inermis is a major, cool-season, long-lived, perennial, sod-forming grass which reproduces from seed and spreads by creeping rhizomes. It is leafy and tall-growing, with a panicle-type inflorescence and a large round stem. This species is both native and introduced. Stands are difficult to obtain and growth is poor on soils high in soluble salts. It does well in deep, well drained, moist soils. Germination time (shown below) can sometimes help determine grass type. It will not tolerate frequent cutting. Very winter hardy. © Angela Gupta, Extension educator; Amy Rager, Extension educator; Megan M. Weber, Extension educator. The leaf sheath is round, smooth and closed. It is found in degraded prairies, roadside ditches and moist, wooded areas. There are no auricles present and it has a round edged ligule. Smooth brome grass prefers moist soils and sunny locations. The plant produces numerous basal and stem leaves that vary in length from 4 to 10 inches. Smooth bromegrass was widely used in the upper half of North America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with distinguishable northern and southern varieties. Smooth bromegrass ( Bromus inermis Leyss.) smooth brome This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Perennial cool-season grass, two to three feet tall. If grasses and legumes don't make a good recovery, you're headed for a midsummer pasture slump. 2020 The ligule is a short, white membrane not unlike the smooth brome species. culm-jointed. … Adapted to soils with fine to medium texture. Pasture trails with this grass have shown that about 1.5 T/ha of beef can be obtained. 2 PASTURE GRASSES 3 Ryegrass Orchardgrass Tall fescue Timothy Kentucky bluegrass Quackgrass Smooth bromegrass Creeping foxtail Reed canarygrass 0 7 14 21 28 Days to germination Life History/Ecology: Smooth brome is a cool season, perennial grass that can spread by seed and Seed yields of 1.5 T/ha are obtained when irrigated. Leaves are rolled in the whorl. Very winter hardy. smooth bromegrass, reflecting selection toward the agement involved watering, pest control, occasional clipping, smooth bromegrass phenotype. Resists heat and drought. Seeds mature in late summer when plants are 93–123 cm tall. (USDA Plant Fact Sheet) Lincolnis a southern type of Smooth Br… This species is both native and introduced. Smooth bromegrass is said to produce consistently about 12.5 T/ha (Reed, 1976). “I … In areas it becomes invasive it can form dense stands that exclude native species and impact native arthropod population dynamics in prairies. Smooth brome, is a leafy, sod-forming, perennial, cool season grass that spreads by rhizomes. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. Important Identifying Characteristics: A W or M-shape constriction can be seen about two-thirds up the leaf blades. Smooth brome grass is an invasive species. The inflorescence is a large panicle with branches in all directions. Stems can reach as high as 1.2 m (48 in.) There are several identification traits distinguishing brome grass from many other weeds. Smooth brome is a Eurasian species introduced to North America, where it has been used extensively for habitat rehabilitation and as a forage plant. The leaves have an "M"- or "W"-shaped constriction. Roots are deep, fibrous, and very fine. The stems are round and 60-90 cm tall. [24126] 59 . Canadian Journal of Plant Science. About This Subject View Images Details View Images Go To Host Page Overview Appearance Bromus inermis is a perennial grass that is 1-3.5 ft. (0.3-1.1 m) tall. Adaptation:Smooth brome was introduced from Europe and Asia. Identification of the different species can be challenging, with misidentification all too common, warns independent grassweed expert Stephen Moss. smooth brome Bromus inermis Leyss. How to do a Smooth Brome Grass Renovation Project - Duration: 3:06. 1000 E. University Ave. Laramie, WY 82071 UW Operators (307) 766-1121 | Contact Us | Download Adobe Reader, Accreditation | Virtual Tour | Emergency Preparedness | Employment at UW | Privacy Policy | Harassment & Discrimination | Accessibility. It has long, narrow, fluffy seeds, with only Regents of the University of Minnesota. Farmers who follow rotation grazing, and … Smooth brome performs best in a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. 74: 531-537. Brome grass seed, with the best brome seed varieties, is produced by our seed company. Bromes are cool season grasses (optimal growth below 75°), usually clump-forming, have closed sheaths, panicles that are often drooping or nodding to one side, multi-flowered spikelets, unequal glumes, and lemmas that are typically awned, hairy and usually notched at the tip forming 2 teeth with the awn arising between the teeth. sod-forming, perennial. However, mixtures with legumes that will not be harvested before 1/10 bloom are excellent. How to identify smooth brome grass Perennial cool-season grass, two to three feet tall. An M or W-shaped leaf constriction is usually present on the blade. It will green up again in the fall as the temperature begins to cool down. leaf-flat, tapers to tip, smooth on top, distinct "W" at midpoint of leaf, dull on lower side Growth Habitat: A native grass of Europe and Asia, Brome was introduced into the U.S. in the 1880’s. Once established it grows creeping rhizomes and can become root bound. Considered invasive in many parts of North America. The stems vary in height from 2 to 4 feet. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. Bromus inermis, smooth brome, is a leafy, sod- forming, perennial, cool season grass that spreads by rhizomes. Leaf blades are flat and smooth and have rough margins. It prefers pH between 5.8 and 6.5. Seed Characteristics: Grayish-tan lemma and palea that tightly adheres to the brown to purple caryopsis. It does well in deep, well drained, moist soils. Conspicuous M- or W-shaped constriction on blade. [2][3] They are commonly known as bromes, brome grasses, cheat grasses or chess grasses. Smooth brome grass should be reported. Regrowth of smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) This restriction on harvesting makes bromegrass unsuitable in mixture with alfalfa that will be harvested at the bud stage. inflorescence-open panicle, often one-sided, spreading. Aquatic invasive species detector program. Leaves Conspicuous M- or W-shaped constriction on blade. It is a bit smaller than smooth bromegrass and has short awns. Plant Characteristics: This plant is very leafy and grows 15 to 30 inches tall. in height. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources provides detailed recommendations for reporting invasive species. Bromus is a large genus of grasses, classified in its own tribe Bromeae. Sign in to download full-size image Figure 2.10. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. [24126] Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Flowers Open panicle (main axis with subdivided Open panicle (main axis with subdivided branching), vertical with ascending branches. Smooth brome is a perennial cool season grass. Leaves alternate in coming Spring harvest should be made before jointing or after the early-flower stage of development to ensure maximum smooth bromegrass persistence. Bromegrass, (genus Bromus), genus of approximately 160 annual and perennial grasses in the family Poaceae, found in temperate and cool climates. Growth Habitat:Smooth brome is a long-lived, cool season perennial. More than 40 species are found in the United States, a number of which are Smooth bromegrass (A) infloresence is a panicle rather than a spike, (B) leaf sheath is fused, (C) distinct “M” constriction on leaves, (D) … Adapted to soils with fine to medium texture. Smooth brome will be one of the first grasses greening up early in the spring. Extension is expanding its online education and resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions. It prefers pH between 5.8 and 6.5. Grasses usually reach this stage 1 to 4 weeks after germination, depending on the species. The sheath is nearly closed, giving it a V-neck sweater appearance. Smooth bromegrass is winter hardy, drought and heat tolerant, and is quite persistent. Smooth brome is distributed throughout most of the United States. Smooth bromegrass is a high-yielding, cold hardy, long-lasting, creeping perennial grass. Forms an extensive sod by rhizomes. This study consisted of 40 It grows 2-4 feet high, with a hairless stem. Reproduces vegetatively through rhizomes. Each seed is flat and oblong with broadest area toward open end. Smooth bromegrass Creeping foxtail Reed canarygrass 0 7 14 21 28 Days to germination Germination time Glossary Auricle A short extension of the leaf blade that wraps partway around the stem. 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